快速部署Grafana日志监控+Nginx封禁IP

事情的起因还要从某天突然发现服务有明显异常的访问记录说起,虽然我这1核2鸡的小机器没什么攻击的价值,但也有了部署一套监控系统的想法。

↓ 这仅是免费CDN静态加速的记录。

快速部署Grafana日志监控+Nginx封禁IP

一番简单的调研之后,我发现主流的日志监控系统为ELK组合(Elasticsearch, Logstash, Kibana),还有Prometheus体系等,但这些nginx配置相对而言application有着较高学习成本与阿里巴巴股票资源占用,适合复杂场景与企业级elasticsearch官网别使用,不太适合个人使用,于是最终我选择了曾经的老朋友Grafana作为基础快速搭建起轻量可扩展的日志监控系统。

Grafana本身支持多种数据对接,扩展性极高,本文不深入展开,所有监控指标围绕着Nginx,因为我apple的服务都是通过N阿里巴巴1688货源批发官网ginx来代理端口的,所以日志的数据源由Nginx提供,但Nginx提供的log只是一个文本文件,我们要解析文本内的数据来进行分析,也可以docker是干什么的解析转换为其他日志堆栈nginx服务器来获得更好的数据处理能力,这里我使用了Grafan阿里拍卖a团队自研的Loki来作为数据堆栈,Loki同时提供了一个代理服务,负责将日志进行解析和推送。

部署之后的默认界面展示,什么都没做的情况下这个界面也算有点味了:

快速部署Grafana日志监控+Nginx封禁IP

Docker环境

Docker官方自动脚本docker是干什么的,运行后自动将Docker的稳定approach(sappointmentta阿里云ble)版本安装在系统中:

curl -fsSL get.docker.com -o get-docker.sh
sudo sh get-docker.sh --mirror Aliyun

配置阿里供应链镜像加速:

mkdir -p /etc/docker
tee /etc/docker/daemon.json <<-'EOF'
{
  "registry-mirrors": ["https://kfwkfulq.mirror.aliyuncs.com"]
}
EOF
sudo systemctl daemon-reload
sudo systemctl start docker

Docker中国区官方 registry.docker-cn.com 网易 hub-mirror.c.163.com 阿里云 kfwkfulq.mirror.aliyuncs.com

Loki安装

找个不会常修改的appetite目录下载所需配置文件,因为后面会映射到容器中

wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/grafana/loki/v2.4.2/cmd/loki/loki-local-config.yaml -O loki-config.yaml

Docker安装Loki

docker run -d --name loki -u root -v $(pwd):/mnt/config -v /data/nginx-home/loki:/tmp/loki -v /etc/localtime:/etc/localtime -p 3002:3100 grafana/loki:2.4.2 -config.file=/mnt/config/loki-config.yaml

等待一会访问 http://xxxxxxelasticsearch原理:3002/ready 准备就绪

官网链接 – 安装 Grafana Loki

Grafannginx是什么意思a安装

docker run -d -p 3001:3000 -v /etc/localtime:/etc/localtime --name=grafana grafana/grafana

访问http://xxxxxx:3001,默认docker容器用户名密码admin,第一次初始化需要较长时间,之后直接点击配置一个数据源,点击Loki,配置好url点击底部的Save&test按钮。

快速部署Grafana日志监控+Nginx封禁IP

接着导入模板:12559(Nginx监控模板,更多模approve板访问官网)

快速部署Grafana日志监控+Nginx封禁IP

但是目前是没有数据的,需要将日志代理到Loki中。

Promtail安装

运行安装p阿里云romtail

同样是找个目录先下载默认appetite配置

wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/grafana/loki/v2.4.2/clients/cmd/promtail/promtail-docker-config.yaml -O promtail-config.yaml

下载完后打开编辑修改配置:

server:
  http_listen_port: 0
  grpc_listen_port: 0
positions:
  filename: /tmp/positions.yaml
clients:
  - url: http://xxxxxxx:3002/loki/api/v1/push  # 修改为你的Loki服务推送地址
scrape_configs:
  - job_name: system
    static_configs:
      - targets:
          - localhost
        labels:
          job: nginx_access_log
          agent: promtail
          __path__: /usr/local/nginx/logs/host.access.log

注意/data/nginx阿里新兵唱清澈的爱只为中国-home/extra/logs修改你自己的nginx日志映射路径:

docker run -d --name promtail -v $(pwd):/mnt/config -v /etc/localtime:/etc/localtime -v /data/nginx-home/extra/logs:/usr/local/nginx/logs grafana/promtail:2.4.2 -config.file=/mnt/config/promtail-config.yaml

修改Nginx配置

log_format json_analytics '{'
                            '"msec": "$msec", ' # request unixtime in seconds with a milliseconds resolution
                            '"connection": "$connection", ' # connection serial number
                            '"connection_requests": "$connection_requests", ' # number of requests made in connection
                    '"pid": "$pid", ' # process pid
                    '"request_id": "$request_id", ' # the unique request id
                    '"request_length": "$request_length", ' # request length (including headers and body)
                    '"remote_addr": "$remote_addr", ' # client IP
                    '"remote_user": "$remote_user", ' # client HTTP username
                    '"remote_port": "$remote_port", ' # client port
                    '"time_local": "$time_local", '
                    '"time_iso8601": "$time_iso8601", ' # local time in the ISO 8601 standard format
                    '"request": "$request", ' # full path no arguments if the request
                    '"request_uri": "$request_uri", ' # full path and arguments if the request
                    '"args": "$args", ' # args
                    '"status": "$status", ' # response status code
                    '"body_bytes_sent": "$body_bytes_sent", ' # the number of body bytes exclude headers sent to a client
                    '"bytes_sent": "$bytes_sent", ' # the number of bytes sent to a client
                    '"http_referer": "$http_referer", ' # HTTP referer
                    '"http_user_agent": "$http_user_agent", ' # user agent
                    '"http_x_forwarded_for": "$http_x_forwarded_for", ' # http_x_forwarded_for
                    '"http_host": "$http_host", ' # the request Host: header
                    '"server_name": "$server_name", ' # the name of the vhost serving the request
                    '"request_time": "$request_time", ' # request processing time in seconds with msec resolution
                    '"upstream": "$upstream_addr", ' # upstream backend server for proxied requests
                    '"upstream_connect_time": "$upstream_connect_time", ' # upstream handshake time incl. TLS
                    '"upstream_header_time": "$upstream_header_time", ' # time spent receiving upstream headers
                    '"upstream_response_time": "$upstream_response_time", ' # time spend receiving upstream body
                    '"upstream_response_length": "$upstream_response_length", ' # upstream response length
                    '"upstream_cache_status": "$upstream_cache_status", ' # cache HIT/MISS where applicable
                    '"ssl_protocol": "$ssl_protocol", ' # TLS protocol
                    '"ssl_cipher": "$ssl_cipher", ' # TLS cipher
                    '"scheme": "$scheme", ' # http or https
                    '"request_method": "$request_method", ' # request method
                    '"server_protocol": "$server_protocol", ' # request protocol, like HTTP/1.1 or HTTP/2.0
                    '"pipe": "$pipe", ' # "p" if request was pipelined, "." otherwise
                    '"gzip_ratio": "$gzip_ratio", '
                    '"http_cf_ray": "$http_cf_ray"'
                    '}';
access_log  /etc/nginx/extra/logs/host.access.log  json_analytics;

重启各个服务以应用配置

docker restart nginx
docker restart loki 
docker restart promtail

之后便可以回到grafana中查看仪表盘里的数据了

日志清appreciate

由于过去太久的日志信息并没有太大的价值,所以需要定时清理,否则很容易成为磁盘容量杀手,Loki 的设计目标是降低存储日志的成本,因此我认为保持其默认的删除策略即可(绝对不是因为懒得去看文档嗯),而nginx的日志文件则可以随意删除,避免累积太多。

首先创建一个auto_clear.sh文件:

#!/bin/bash
rm -rf /data/nginx-home/extra/logs/host.access.log # 换成你的日志路径
docker restart nginx # 重启nginx,简单粗暴

打开计划任务

crontab -e

写入脚本每docker安装天凌晨4点自动运行

00 04 * * * /bin/bash /data/nginx-home/extra/logs/auto_clear.sh

wq退出并刷新应用

service crond restart

查看计划任务:

crontab -l

NgiAPPnx封禁IP

nginx封禁IP非常简单,先创建一个blackips阿里众包.conf文件:

# 每一行代表一个黑名单IP
deny 1.2.3.4;
deny 110.191.215.8;
deny 110.191.214.214;

配置文件nginx.conf中的http对象中写入文件路径:

include       /etc/nginx/extra/blockips.conf;

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