本文已参与「新人创作礼」活动,一起开启掘金创作之路。

相关链接

  • 蛋卷基金爬虫——收集蛋卷基金上的投资组合数据 – 掘金 (juejin.cn)
  • 天天基金爬虫——天天基金爬取基金信息统计持仓净值 – 掘金 (juejin.cn)
  • 多线程爬虫小试牛刀——天天基金爬虫 – 掘金 (juejin.cn)
  • 且慢基approve金爬虫——自动更新x-sign的投资组合爬取 – 掘金 (juejin.cn)
  • python爬取B站关注列表 – 掘金 (https协议juejin.cn)

一、数据爬虫技术抓取网站数据库的设计与操作

1appointment、数据的分析

python爬取B站关注列表
B站的关注列表在

api.bilibili.com/x/relation/…人体肠道结构示意图

中,一页最多50条信息。

我们大致分析一下信息,

{
	"code": 0,
	"message": "0",
	"ttl": 1,
	"data": {
		"list": [{……

首先,列表内容存在data:list里。

其次,对于列表中每一项,有如下信息


			"mid": 672353429,
			"attribute": 2,
			"mtime": 1630510107,
			"tag": null,
			"special": 0,
			"contract_info": {
				"is_contractor": false,
				"ts": 0,
				"is_contract": false,
				"user_attr": 0
			},
			"uname": "贝拉kira",
			"face": "https://www.6hu.cc/files/2022/05/31601-nPVWRi.jpg",
			"sign": "元气满满的A-SOUL舞担参上~目标TOP IDOL,一起加油!",
			"official_verify": {
				"type": 0,
				"desc": "虚拟偶像团体A-SOUL 所属艺人"
			},
			"vip": {
				"vipType": 2,
				"vipDueDate": 1674576000000,
				"dueRemark": "",
				"accessStatus": 0,
				"vipStatus": 1,
				"vipStatusWarn": "",
				"themeType": 0,
				"label": {
					"path": "",
					"text": "年度大会员",
					"label_theme": "annual_vip",
					"text_color": "#FFFFFF",
					"bg_style": 1,
					"bg_color": "#FB7299",
					"border_color": ""
				},
				"avatar_subscript": 1,
				"nickname_color": "#FB7299",
				"avatar_subscript_url": "https://www.6hu.cc/files/2022/05/31601-ox4Ba6.png"
			}

其中,mid为用户独一无二的UID,vipType,0是什么都没开,1是大appreciate会员,2是年度爬虫技术大会员,official_https认证verify中,type 0代表官方认证,-1代表没有官方认证。

同时我们发现python怎么读,如果对方锁了列表,会返回

{"code":-400,"message":"请求错误","ttl":1}

2、数据库设计

基于这些,我python安装教程们先设计数据库,包含两张表,用户信息的基本属性让天秤倒追的星座python怎么读和关注的关系表。

def createDB():
    link=sqlite3.connect('BiliFollowDB.db')
    print("database open success")
    UserTableDDL='''
                create table if not exists user(
                UID int PRIMARY KEY     NOT NULL,
                NAME varchar            NOT NULL,
                SIGN varchar            DEFAULT NULL,
                vipType int             NOT NULL,
                verifyType int          NOT NULL,
                verifyDesc varchar      DEFAULT NULL)
                '''
    RelationTableDDL='''
                create table if not exists relation(
                follower int           NOT NULL,
                following int          NOT NULL,
                followTime int         NOT NULL,
                PRIMARY KEY (follower,following),
                FOREIGN KEY(follower,following) REFERENCES user(UID,UID)
                )
                '''
    # create user table
    link.execute(UserTableDDL)
    # create relation table
    link.execute(RelationTableDDL)
    print("database create success")
    link.commit()
    link.close()

3、数据库操作

appearance次是插入新用户的列表,我的思路是爬完一个人的关注列表,appreciate把一整个list丢给该函数,判断是否存在新增用户,存在则把新增用户传回,作为下一次爬虫的起点。

def insertUser(infos):
    conn=sqlite3.connect('BiliFollowDB.db')
    link=conn.cursor()
    InsertCmd="insert into user (UID,NAME,vipType,verifyType,sign,verifyDesc) values (?,?,?,?,?,?);"
    ExistCmd="select count(UID) from user where UID='%d';"# % UID
    newID=[]
    for info in infos:
        answer=link.execute(ExistCmd%info['uid'])
        for row in answer:
            exist_ID=row[0]
        if exist_ID==0:
            newID.append(info['uid'])
            link.execute(InsertCmd,(info['uid'],info['name'],info['vipType'],info['verifyType'],info['sign'],info['verifyDesc']))
    conn.commit()
    conn.close()
    return newID

然后是插入关系的函数,这个比较简单

def insertFollowing(uid:int,subscribe):
    conn=sqlite3.connect('BiliFollowDB.db')
    link=conn.cursor()
    InsertCmd="insert into relation (follower,following,followTime) values (?,?,?);"
    for follow in subscribe:
        link.execute(InsertCmd,(uid,follow[0],follow[1]))
    conn.commit()
    conn.close()

二、爬虫

通过观察,我们发现睿叔叔锁了5页的关注列表

python爬取B站关注列表
即使是人工操作也爬虫python入门只能访问5页,那没办法啦,我们就爬5页吧。

def getFollowingList(uid:int):
    url="https://api.bilibili.com/x/relation/followings?vmid=%d&pn=%d&ps=50&order=desc&order_type=attention&jsonp=jsonp"# % (UID, Page Number)
    infos=[]
    subscribe=[]
    for i in range(1,6):
        html=requests.get(url%(uid,i))
        if html.status_code!=200:
            print("GET ERROR!")
        text=html.text
        dic=json.loads(text)
        if dic['code']==-400:
            break
        list=dic['data']['list']
        for usr in list:
            info={}
            info['uid']=usr['mid']
            info['name']=usr['uname']
            info['vipType']=usr['vip']['vipType']
            info['verifyType']=usr['official_verify']['type']
            info['sign']=usr['sign']
            if info['verifyType']==-1:
                info['verifyDesc']='NULL'
            else :
                info['verifyDesc']=usr['official_verify']['desc']
            subscribe.append((usr['mid'],usr['mtime']))
            infos.append(info)
    newID=insertUser(infos)
    insertFollowing(uid,subscribe)
    return newID

三、完整代码

#by concyclics
# -*- coding:UTF-8 -*-
import sqlite3
import json
import requests
def createDB():
    link=sqlite3.connect('BiliFollowDB.db')
    print("database open success")
    UserTableDDL='''
                create table if not exists user(
                UID int PRIMARY KEY     NOT NULL,
                NAME varchar            NOT NULL,
                SIGN varchar            DEFAULT NULL,
                vipType int             NOT NULL,
                verifyType int          NOT NULL,
                verifyDesc varchar      DEFAULT NULL)
                '''
    RelationTableDDL='''
                create table if not exists relation(
                follower int           NOT NULL,
                following int          NOT NULL,
                followTime int         NOT NULL,
                PRIMARY KEY (follower,following),
                FOREIGN KEY(follower,following) REFERENCES user(UID,UID)
                )
                '''
    # create user table
    link.execute(UserTableDDL)
    # create relation table
    link.execute(RelationTableDDL)
    print("database create success")
    link.commit()
    link.close()
def insertUser(infos):
    conn=sqlite3.connect('BiliFollowDB.db')
    link=conn.cursor()
    InsertCmd="insert into user (UID,NAME,vipType,verifyType,sign,verifyDesc) values (?,?,?,?,?,?);"
    ExistCmd="select count(UID) from user where UID='%d';"# % UID
    newID=[]
    for info in infos:
        answer=link.execute(ExistCmd%info['uid'])
        for row in answer:
            exist_ID=row[0]
        if exist_ID==0:
            newID.append(info['uid'])
            link.execute(InsertCmd,(info['uid'],info['name'],info['vipType'],info['verifyType'],info['sign'],info['verifyDesc']))
    conn.commit()
    conn.close()
    return newID
def insertFollowing(uid:int,subscribe):
    conn=sqlite3.connect('BiliFollowDB.db')
    link=conn.cursor()
    InsertCmd="insert into relation (follower,following,followTime) values (?,?,?);"
    for follow in subscribe:
        try:
            link.execute(InsertCmd,(uid,follow[0],follow[1]))
        except:
            print((uid,follow[0],follow[1]))
    conn.commit()
    conn.close()
def getFollowingList(uid:int):
    url="https://api.bilibili.com/x/relation/followings?vmid=%d&pn=%d&ps=50&order=desc&order_type=attention&jsonp=jsonp"# % (UID, Page Number)
    infos=[]
    subscribe=[]
    for i in range(1,6):
        html=requests.get(url%(uid,i))
        if html.status_code!=200:
            print("GET ERROR!")
            return []
        text=html.text
        dic=json.loads(text)
        if dic['code']==-400:
            return []
        try:
            list=dic['data']['list']
        except:
            return []
        for usr in list:
            info={}
            info['uid']=usr['mid']
            info['name']=usr['uname']
            info['vipType']=usr['vip']['vipType']
            info['verifyType']=usr['official_verify']['type']
            info['sign']=usr['sign']
            if info['verifyType']==-1:
                info['verifyDesc']='NULL'
            else :
                info['verifyDesc']=usr['official_verify']['desc']
            subscribe.append((usr['mid'],usr['mtime']))
            infos.append(info)
    newID=insertUser(infos)
    insertFollowing(uid,subscribe)
    return newID
def getFollowingUid(uid:int):
    url="https://api.bilibili.com/x/relation/followings?vmid=%d&pn=%d&ps=50&order=desc&order_type=attention&jsonp=jsonp"# % (UID, Page Number)
    for i in range(1,6):
        html=requests.get(url%(uid,i))
        if html.status_code!=200:
            print("GET ERROR!")
            return []
        text=html.text
        dic=json.loads(text)
        if dic['code']==-400:
            return []
        try:
            list=dic['data']['list']
        except:
            return []
        IDs=[]
        for usr in list:
            IDs.append(usr['mid'])
        return IDs
def work(root):
    IDlist=root
    tmplist=[]
    while len(IDlist)!=0:
        tmplist=[]
        for ID in IDlist:
            print(ID)
            tmplist+=getFollowingList(ID)
        IDlist=tmplist
def rework():
    conn=sqlite3.connect('BiliFollowDB.db')
    link=conn.cursor()
    SelectCmd="select uid from user;"
    answer=link.execute(SelectCmd)
    IDs=[]
    for row in answer:
        IDs.append(row[0])
    conn.commit()
    conn.close()
    newID=[]
    print(IDs)
    for ID in IDs:
        ids=getFollowingUid(ID)
        for id in ids:
            if id not in IDs:
                newID.append(id)
    return newID
if __name__=="__main__":
    createDB()
    #work([**put root UID here**,])

四、项目仓库

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